Laparoscopic Tubal Ligation: Laparscopic Tubal Ligation is a minimally invasive form of birth control that requires you to go to sleep under general anesthesia in the operating room at the hospital or surgery center. You will normally be off from work from 2-4 days.
Open Tubal Ligation: Open tubal ligation is done immediately after delivery or when other forms may not be able to be performed. After an open tubal ligation you are limited to no heavy lifting for 6 weeks. Open tubal ligation has to be done in the hospital or surgery center under general anesthesia.
Vasectomy: Vasectomy is permanent birth control that your husband has done in his doctor’s office under local anesthesia.
Reversible Birth Control
Abstinence: Abstinence is being in a relationship without intercourse. Abstinence is the only 100% method of preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection as long as there is not genital to genital contact.
Withdrawal: In this form of birth control your male partner tries to withdraw his penis prior to release of semen/sperm. This method has a high risk of failure and does not prevent sexually transmitted infection.
Natural Family Planning: A very effective form of birth control that involves a commitment from both the male and female partner to timing vaginal intercourse with your physical signs and symptoms. To be effective a systematic approach, such as that instructed by Napro centers must be utilized. This form of birth control does not prevent sexually transmitted infections.
Barrier Forms of Birth Control: These methods require the use of a physical barrier each time you have intercourse. These forms may reduce but do not completely prevent sexually transmitted infections. These forms include the below listed methods.
- Condoms (Male and Female)
- Diaphragms and Cervical Caps
Intrauterine device or system (IUD/IUS)
These are very effective forms of birth control and do not require daily medication or application of device. These devices prevent fertilization of the egg, and from the studies available do not cause abortion. They are both inserted vaginally similar to a pap smear exam, with minimal discomfort and are checked in one month by physical exam and ultrasound. They may cause erratic cycles for the first 3-6 months, at which time they improve. IUD’s do not prevent sexually transmitted infections. The types of IUD’s are listed below.
a. Copper IUD (Paragard)
- This is the only Non-Hormonal form of IUD birth control. The copper IUD works by the copper causing the sperm not being able to penetrate and fertilize the egg. Initially your cycles will be irregular and heavier after insertion, but typically become better after 3-6 months and returning to normal. This form can be used up to 10 years, at which time must be removed and another may be reinserted. May be used while breastfeeding.
b. Mirena IUD:
- This form of birth control uses progestin to thicken the cervical mucous, so as not to allow sperm to pass through the cervix into the uterus; therefore, the sperm don’t reach the egg and fertilization does not occur. Another effect is that the progestin thins the lining and lightens your menses and after 3-6 months of possibly irregular periods, your periods may stop. The progestin is a very small amount of hormone; therefore, side effects are very unlikely but still possible. Mirena may be used up to 5 years, at which time must be removed and another may be reinserted.
These forms of birth control use a synthesized form of progesterone to suppress ovulation. These forms include Mirena IUD (discussed before), Nexplanon, Depo-Provera and Progestin only birth control pill. Progestin forms may be used during breastfeeding, since they do not affect breastfeeding, once it has been established (about 1-2 weeks after delivery).
- This form of birth control is inserted under the skin and may be used up to 3 years, at which time must be removed and may be reinserted. Menses tend to be irregular for the first 3-6 months and then usually lighten up and stop. Side effects are usually minimal. It does not protect from Sexually Transmitted Infections.
b. Progestin “Mini-Pill.”
- This is the preferred type of oral birth control used while breastfeeding. The pill must be taken at the same time of the day to be most effective (evening is usually best). When you are ready to stop breastfeeding it is usually best to switch forms of birth control (such as a regular type of pill) before stopping breastfeeding.
- This form of birth control requires an injection at your doctor’s office every 3 months. Some concerns about Depo-Provera are increased weight gain, irregular menses and decreased bone mass.
- d. Mirena: See above description.
Combination birth control (Estrogen and Progestin)
Combination birth control is very effective form of birth control that comes in different forms, such as “The Pill”, patch (Ortho Evra) and vaginal ring (Nuvaring). Estrogen increases your risk of blood clots, but this risk is minimal unless you smoke or have a family history of clotting disorders. If you do smoke, or have a family history of clotting disorders you should not use birth control with estrogen in it. These forms of birth control do not protect from Sexually Transmitted Infections. Side effects to combination birth control may be breast tenderness, water weight gain, and break through vaginal bleeding. Combination birth control have been seen in studies to have a significant decrease in ovarian and endometrial cancer, but there may be a slight increase in breast and cervical cancer. Combination birth control may improve acne.
a. “The Pill”
- There are multiple forms of the pill that require the taking of a daily oral pill. Most forms are made to mimic your monthly cycles (Cyclic), but some may suppress your periods (Continuous); whereas, you will not have a period while taking (with the exception of when you initially begin and occasional break through bleeding).
- is inserted vaginally monthly and may be used as a cyclic or continuous birth control.
c. OrthoEvra Patch
- is a patch that is worn on your skin and changed weekly. The patch may be used as a continuous or cyclic birth control. Some concerns have been raised as to the patch causing increased risk of blood clots.